APA Style

The main scholarly association for academic psychologists in the United States, the American Psychological Association (APA) has developed standardized methods for citing print and electronic sources used in research. Below are instructions according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) and http://www.apastyle.org/.

Instructions

Alphabetize each entry in a works cited list by the first letter, ignoring the articles A, An, and The. Indent subsequent lines of entries one-half inch.

Names: Use initials for first and middle names.

Titles: For articles, chapters and books, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns. Fully capitalize periodical titles.

Dates: Publication dates use the order year, month day. The access date uses the order month day year. If no publication date is available, use "n.d." in place of date.

The following examples are citations from EBSCO databases. If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available. Different styles may apply when citing print and other sources.

Journal Article

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of article]. [Title of journal], [Volume number]([Issue number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Document Object Identifier]

Example:

Silva, L. (2007). Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems. Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 165-183. [Document Object Identifier]

Journal Article w/ No Author

Pattern:

[Title of article]. ([Publication year]). [Title of journal], [Volume number]([Issue number]), [Page number starts]-[ends]. [Document Object Identifier]

Example:

Epistemological and theoretical challenges for studying power and politics in information systems. (2007). Information Systems Journal, 17(2), 165-183. [Document Object Identifier]

Online Magazine Article

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. ([Year], [Month]). [Article Title] [Title of magazine], [Volume number] ([Issue Number]). Retrieved from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Wood, L. (2007, February). Curiously strong teamwork. Business Week, 4023. Retrieved from Associates Programs Source database.

Magazine Article w/ No Author

Pattern:

[Title of article]. ([Year], [Month]). [Title of magazine], [Volume number] ([Issue Number]). Retrieved from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Curiously strong teamwork. (2007, February). Business Week, 4023, 90-92. Retrieved from Associates Programs Source database.

Online Newspaper Article

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Year], [Month] [Day]). [Title of article]. [Title of newspaper]. Retrieved from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Bodipo-Memba, A. (2007, February 21). AT&T, GM agrees to $1-billion telecommunications pact. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved from Newspaper Source Plus database.

Online Newspaper Article w/ No Author

Pattern:

[Title of article]. ([Year], [Month] [Day])] [Title of newspaper]. Retrieved from [Name of database] database.

Example:

AT&T, GM agrees to $1-billion telecommunications pact. (2007, February 21). Detroit Free Press. Retrieved from Newspaper Source Plus database.

Book

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of work]. [Location]: [Publisher].

Example:

Melkman, A. (2006). Strategic customer planning. London, UK: Thorogood.

Online Book Chapter

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. ([Publication year]). [Title of chapter]. In, [Title of book] (pp. [Page number starts]-[ends]). [Location]: [Publisher]. Retrieved from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Melkman, A. (2006). Introduction, summary and how to get the most out of this book. In, Strategic customer planning (pp. 1-18). London, UK: Thorogood. Retrieved from TOC Premier database.

ERIC Document

Pattern:

[Author last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. [Publication year]. [Title of Document]([Document or Report number]). [Place of Publication]: [Publishing Agency Name] (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. [ED# or EJ#]). Retrieved from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Naples, N. A. (2000). Economic restructuring and racialization: Incorporation of Mexicans and Mexican-Americans in the rural midwest. Working Paper. (Report WP-7). California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED466345). Retrieved from ERIC database.

Image

Pattern:

[Title of image]. ([Date of creation]). from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Bush meets Italian president in Rome. (2005). from Image Collection database.

Video / Audio

Pattern:

[Title of video / audio]. ([Date of creation]). from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Presidential and Vice Presidential debates - 1988. (1988). from Video Encyclopedia of the 20th Century database.

Podcast

Pattern:

[Producer last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. (Producer) & [Presenter last name], [First initial]. [Middle initial]. (Presenter). ([Publication Year], [Month] [Day]). [Title of Podcast] [Type of podcast]. [Country of publication]: [Distributor]. Retrieved from [Name of database] database.

Example:

Alper, B. (Producer) & Hayden, E. (Presenter). (2007, March 6). Prevention of HIV infection. Treatment of COPD. [DynaMed Podcast Program]. Ipswich, Massachusetts: EBSCO Publishing. Retrieved from DynaMed database.

Conference Paper

Pattern:

[Author]. ([Year],). [Title of paper]. In Editor ([First initial, Last name]) (Ed.) [Title of conference proceedings] ([page numbers]). [Place of publication]: [Publisher]. [doi:xxx.xxxxxxx]

Example:

Kohout, J., Finno, A., & Hart, B. (2010). In Editor E. Fromm (Ed.) Can APA be a Peppered Moth? Evolving in Response to Environmental Change and Prospects for the Association (10-24). Washington, District of Columbia, US: American Psychological Association, Center for Workforce Studies. Retrieved from PsycEXTRA database.

Electronic books

Pattern:

[Author Last Name]’ [Author first name initials]. ([Date]). [Book Title] Retrieved from [URL]

Example:

Seaward, B. L. (1999). Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. Retrieved from www.netlibrary.com

Electronic Book-Chapter

Pattern:

[Author Last Name]’ [Author first name initials]. ([Date]). [Title of Chapter] In [Book Title] (Chapter or Section number) Retrieved from [URL]

Example:

Seaward, B. L. (1999). “Managing Stress.” In Managing Stress: Principles and Strategies for Health and Wellbeing. (Chapter 1) Retrieved from www.netlibrary.com

Website

Pattern:

[Author Last Name], [Author First Name Initial]. ([Date of publication[). [Title of document]. Retrieved from [http://Web address]

Example:

IBM. (n.d.). Green electronics: designing for a smarter planet. Retrieved from http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/green_and_sustainability/article/green_electroni cs.html?re=ussph1.1

These are only basic examples of the APA style. More detailed information is available through the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition) and http://www.apastyle.org/. In addition, a variety of third-party style guides and web sites can provide further assistance.

Always consult your library resources for the exact formatting and punctuation guidelines.